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注会综合阶段英语水平提升班——第五单元4

t-admin154 网校老师 发表于 2017-10-29 16:21:04 | 评论:0  查看:453次 [注会英语]
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Unit 5 Financial Reporting Standards
The fifth part
7. Revenue recognition
一、Key terms
Revenue :                                                                             收入
Substance over form:                                                     实质重于形式
Sale of goods:                                                                     销售商品
Rendering of service:                                                     提供劳务
Interest, royalties, dividends:                                 利息,使用费,红利
Consignment stock                                                         委托代销商品
Sale and repurchase                                                     售后回购
Sale and lease back                                                     售后回租
Goods shipped subject to conditions-installation and inspection
                                        商品需要安装和检验销售
Goods shipped subject to conditions-right of return
附有销售退回条件的销售
Consignment sales                                                   委托代销
Payment in advance of delivery                           预收款销售
Installment sales                                                       分期收款销售
Cash discount, trade discount and sales allowances
                                  现金折扣,商业折扣和销售折让
Trade in                                                                             以旧换新
Collection with acceptance                                            托收承付
Installation fees                                                             安装费
Advertising commissions                                                广告费
Admission fees                                                                 入会费
Tuition fees                                                                     学费
Membership fees                                                             会员费
Franchise fees                                                                    特许权费
二、Key points
1.Definition(定义)
Revenue is a gross inflow of economic benefit during the course of ordinary activities that results in an increase in equity other than increase relating to contributions from equity participants.
收入,是指企业在日常活动中形成的、会导致所有者权益增加的、与所有者投入资本无关的经济利益的总流入。
2.Measurement(计量)
1)Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable after any trade discounts.
收入以收到或应收对价的公允价值考虑销售折扣后的金额来计量。
2)If the inflow of cash or cash equivalents is deferred, the fair value of the consideration receivable is less than the nominal amount of cash or cash equivalents to be received, and discounting is appropriate.
如果现金或现金等价物是延期流入,那么应收对价的公允价值就要小于将要收到的现金或现金等价物的名义金额,这时应当以现值确认收入。
3.Identification of the transaction(交易的识别)
1)Normally, each transaction can be looked at as a whole. Sometimes, it is necessary to break a transaction into its component parts. E.g. a sale include both the transfer of goods and the provision of future servicing, the revenue for which should be deferred over the period the service is performed.  
通常情况下,每一笔交易都应视作一个整体。有时,有必要将一笔交易分为不同的部分分别处理。如一笔销售中既包括商品的转移,又包括提供未来的服务,该笔递延收入应该在提供劳务的期间分期确认。
2)On the other hand, seemingly separate transactions must be considered together if apart they lose their commercial meaning. E.g. sale and repurchase.
另一方面,看起来独立的交易必须作为整体考虑,以反映经济实质。如售后回购业务。
4.Sale of goods
Revenue is recognized when all the conditions are met:
1)all significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer.
2)the entity has no continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership, and no longer has effective control over the goods sold.
3)revenue of the transaction can be measured reliably.
4)the associated costs of the transaction can be measured reliably.
5)it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the enterprise.
销售商品收入只有同时满足以下条件时,才能加以确认:
1)企业已将商品所有权上的主要风险和报酬转移给购货方;
2)企业既没有保留通常与所有权相联系的继续管理权,也没有对已售出的商品实施有效控制;
3)收入的金额能够可靠地计量;
4)相关的已发生或将发生的成本能够可靠地计量;
5)相关的经济利益很可能流入企业。
5.Rendering of services
1)When the outcome of the transaction can be estimated reliably revenue is recognized by reference to the stage of completion of the contract.
提供劳务交易的结果能够可靠估计的,应当采用完工百分比法确认提供劳务收入。
2)When the outcome of the transaction cannot be estimated reliably, revenue is recognized only to the extent of the expenses recognized that are recoverable.
提供劳务交易结果不能够可靠估计的,收入的确认以能够得到补偿的劳务成本金额为限。
3)The sales price of a product may include an identifiable amount for subsequent servicing. In this case, that amount is deferred and recognized as revenue over the period during which the service is performed.
同时销售商品和提供劳务,如果能够区分且单独计量,应当分别核算。
6.Interest, royalties and dividends
1)interest shall be recognized using the effective interest rate method
利息应按实际利率法确认
2)royalties shall be recognized on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement;
使用费应按协议的实质,在权责制的基础上确认
3)dividends shall be recognized when the shareholder’s right to receive payment is established
当股东有权利获得股利时才能确认股利收入
三、 Practice question
Suppose market rate of interest is 10% for all the questions.
a) Magazine publisher
A company publishes a magazine and on 1 July sold annual subscriptions totaling $200,000. The monies have been received and are non-refundable. The financial yearend of the company is 31 December.
Solution:
The money is non-refundable and the service will be provided over one year, so the revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis. Since the service has not been provided at the point of advance payment from customers, no revenue should be recognized.
1 July
Dr         Cash                                                  200,000
Cr        Deferred income                                    200,000
31 December
Dr        Deferred income                          100,000
Cr        Revenue                                                     100,000
b) Internet travel agent
An internet travel agent receives $1,000 for arranging a hotel booking, and will pass on $900 in due course to the hotel.
Solution: In an agency relationship, the gross inflows of economic benefits include amounts collected on behalf of the principal and which do not result in increases in equity for the entity. The amounts collected on behalf of the principal are not revenue. Instead, revenue is the amount of commission.
Dr        Cash                                   1,000
Cr         Sales commission                                     100
Cr         Payables                                             900

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