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注会综合阶段英语水平提升班——第四单元4

t-admin154 网校老师 发表于 2017-10-29 16:16:31 | 评论:0  查看:420次 [注会英语]
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Unit4 Corporate strategy
三、Reading materials
9.SWOT analysis
Internal-strengths and weaknesses: resources and capabilities
What is the organization good at? What is it poor at? Where are resources in short supply(短缺)? Where are resources excellent?
External-opportunities and threats: environment, industry structure
What will the effect on the organization be of economic changes? Can the organization make use of new technologies? Are new entrants likely to enter the market place? Can a powerful customer dictate terms?
file:///C:\Users\ASUS\AppData\Local\Temp\ksohtml\wpsB43.tmp.png
SWOT分析包括分析企业的优势(Strengths)、劣势(Weaknesses)、机会(Opportunities)和威胁(Threats)。SWOT分析实际上是将对企业内外部条件各方面内容进行综合和概括,进而分析组织的优劣势、面临的机会和威胁的一种方法。
The challenge in evaluating all the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats is to prioritize them (优先排序) and then identify appropriate actions. The basic idea is to:
Build on strengths 强化优势
Eliminate or deal with weaknesses 消除或处理劣势
Exploit opportunities 利用机会
Minimize threats 减少威胁
SWOT Matrix Example
file:///C:\Users\ASUS\AppData\Local\Temp\ksohtml\wpsB63.tmp.png       Internal Factors
[size=10.5000pt]
[size=10.5000pt]
External factors
[size=10.5000pt]
Strengths
[size=10.5000pt]
weaknesses
Opportunities
Use strengths that take advantage of opportunities
Take advantage of opportunities by overcoming weaknesses
Threats
Use strengths to avoid threats
Minimize weaknesses and avoid threats

10.Ansoff’s matrix安索夫矩阵(企业成长矩阵)
[size=10.5000pt]
Existing products现有产品
New products新产品
Existing markets
现有市场
Market penetration
市场渗透
Build market share扩大市场份额
Develop niches开发小众/利基市场
Hold market share 保持市场份额
Product development
产品开发
Basic idea is to get more money from existing customers.
Can be particularly good if using existing resources, distribution channels, etc.
如果能使用现存的资源和销售渠道,这一战略会更有效。
New markets
新市场
Market development市场开发
This involves finding new markets for existing products.
These could be new segments in current markets [size=10.5000pt](e.g. new age group[size=10.5000pt]) or overseas markets.
Diversification多元化
Related diversification 相关多元化
Nonrelated diversification
非相关多元化
11.Porter’s generic strategies(基本竞争战略)
[size=10.5000pt]
Cost leadership
成本领先
Differentiation 差异化
Focus 集中化
Aim
To cut costs of production/purchasing/service and in turn cut selling prices
To offer a product that can’t be matched by rivals and charge a premium for this “difference”
Position the business in one particular niche (小众市场)in the market
How
Economies of scale 规模经济
Use of learning effects 学习效应
Using cheaper labor and materials
Moving to cheaper premise(经营场所,处所)
Branding
Quality &design
Innovation
Knowledge management
Control over suppliers/get support from suppliers
[size=10.5000pt]
Find a segment (细分市场)where the cost leader or differentiators have little or no presence and build business here
Reduction in product range
Benefits
High volumes
Creates a barrier to entry 进入壁垒
Win price wars 价格战
Reduced power of substitutes 削弱替代品的威胁
Builds brand loyalty and repeat purchases
Higher margins
Reduction in power of customers
Develops brand loyalty
Little competition
Often a first step towards the other generic strategies
Threats
No fallback position (没有退路)if leadership is lost
Large rivals may enter the market 竞争对手进入市场
Cost advantage lost due to technology change 技术变化导致成本优势丧失
Perform badly in a recession(萧条)
Often easily copied in the long run
Need to constantly innovate
Needs much higher marketing than cost leadershipFewer barriers to entry
Low volumes
If successful, it attracts cost leaders and differentiators
Few barriers to entry
suitability
Large organizations with economies of scale
Innovative companies with large marketing budgets
Small business with entrepreneurial flair(具有创业者的洞察力), strong market knowledge and a risk taking attitude (often new starts)
12.Organization structure 组织结构
Type
advantages
disadvantages
Entrepreneurial
创业型
Quick flexible decisions
Goal congruence 快速弹性决策目标一致
Too slow for large companies
Too many decisions for one person
Lack of specialism/expertise in some areas 缺少专业分工
Functional
职能型 (bureaucratic) (官僚型)
Specialization is efficient专业性强
Good career opportunities and extra responsibilities
好的职业机会和更多的责任
Can cope with more products than entrepreneurial structure
可以应对更多的产品
Empire building建造帝国,层级多
Conflict between functions各职能之间的冲突
people are too specialized
Bureaucratic/inflexible/slow to adapt适应性差
Lack of communication between functions
Type
advantages
disadvantages
Divisional
事业部制组织结构
Increased staff motivation 增加员工的动力
Senior management concentrate on overall strategy
Flexible灵活
Can cope better with diversification(多元化)than a functional structure
Conflict between divisions e.g. transfer prices转移价格
Extra costs through repetition of functions e.g. marketing职能部门重复增加了成本
Conflict over shared costs e.g. personnel
Lack of goal congruence缺乏目标一致
[size=10.5000pt]
Matrix
矩阵制组织结构
Inter-functional communication enhanced职能部门之间的沟通提高Staff motivation can be improved through variety of work and challenges
Very flexible ( can easily react to changes in both the internal and external environments)
Functional managers’ expertise is “diluted”-spread over many projects
Staff are serving two masters, conflict, role ambiguity, role overload下属有两个上司,易产生冲突,角色不清,角色工作过多
Time-consuming meetings and higher administrative costs管理成本高

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