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注会综合阶段英语水平提升班——第四单元3

t-admin154 网校老师 发表于 2017-10-29 16:15:23 | 评论:0  查看:451次 [注会英语]
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Unit4 Corporate strategy
三、Reading materials
5. Porter’s diamond钻石模型
Porter tried to answer the following questions:
Why does a nation become the home base(总部,根据地) for successful international competitors in an industry? Germany is renowned for car manufacture; Japan is prominent in consumer electronics(消费性电子产品).
Why are firms based in a particular nation able to create and sustain competitive advantage(竞争优势) against the world’s best competitors in a particular field?
Why is one country often the home of so many of an industry’s world leaders?
波特试图回答下列问题:
为什么有些国家能够成为行业中的世界优秀竞争者的根据地?如,德国的汽车制造,日本的消费性电子产品。
为什么这些以某一国家为总部的企业能够创造并保持竞争优势?
为什么行业的佼佼者通常出现在某些国家?
Porter called the answers to these questions the determinants(决定因素) of national competitive advantage. He suggested that there are four main factors which determine national competitive advantage and expressed them in the form of a diamond.
波特为这几个问题寻求到了决定因素,即国家竞争优势。迈克尔·波特识别出国家竞争优势的四个决定因素,构建了钻石模型:
1)Favorable factor conditions: physical resources (物质资源)such as land, minerals and weather; capital; human resources; knowledge and infrastructure (基础设施).
2)There must be a strong home market demand for the product or service.
3)The success of an industry can be due to its suppliers and related industries.
Organization goals can be determined by ownership structure ( 所有者结构) .
4)Firm strategy, structure and rivalry.
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6.Analysis of internal factors affecting strategy 内部因素分析
To complement (补充) the assessment of external factors affecting strategy, an organization must conduct an internal capability analysis.
为了补充外部影响因素的评价,组织还需要对内部因素进行分析。
Capability refers to resources ( tangible and intangible ) and competences (竞争能力). An internal capability analysis helps to ensure that the organization has the resources and competences to reach its strategic and tactical goals.
内部因素分析包括分析企业的资源和能力。进行内部分析是为了确保企业具有实现战略和战术上的目标的能力。
Strategic capability can also be divided into threshold capabilities and capabilities for competitive advantage.
1)Threshold capabilities(基本能力). These are the minimum capabilities needed for the organization to be able to compete in a given market.
2)Capabilities for competitive advantage(具有竞争优势的能力). Core competences are the activities, processes and methods through which an organization uses its resources effectively, in ways that others cannot imitate (模仿) or obtain.
企业的内部资源和能力可以分为基本能力和核心竞争力。
1)基本能力。即企业在市场上所需要的最基本的能力。
2)核心竞争力。即企业在竞争过程中所拥有的其他企业难以模仿或难以获得的,能够为企业带来竞争优势的活动、流程和方法。
7.Benchmarking基准分析
Benchmarking is the process of systematic comparison of a service, practice or process. Its use is to provide a target for action in order to improve competitive position.
基准分析是企业和竞争对手在服务、实践或流程等方面系统进行比较的过程。其主要目的就是为提升竞争力而设定相关目标。
The main benefits include(主要好处包括):
1)Improved performance and added value 提升业绩和增加价值
2)Improved understanding of environmental pressure 更加深刻理解环境压力
3)Improved competitive position 提升竞争地位
4)A creative process of change 创造性的变化过程
5)A target to motivate and improve operations 促进和改进运营的目标
6)Increased rate of organizational learning 提升组织学习速度
8.Value chain价值链
Porter developed the value chain to help identify which activities within the firm were contributing to a competitive advantage and which were not.
The approach involves breaking down the firm into five ‘primary’ and four ‘support’ activities, and then looking at each to see if they give a cost advantage or quality advantage.
波特价值链分析目的在于找到为企业贡献最多竞争优势的活动。
价值链分析将企业的活动分为五种基本活动和四种辅助活动,并关注这些活动能否给企业带来成本优势或质量优势。
Primary activities:
①Inbound logistics
Receiving, storing and handling raw material inputs. For example, a just-in-time stock system could give a cost advantage.
②Operations
Transformation of the raw materials into finished goods and services. For example, using skilled craftsmen could give a quality advantage.
③Outbound logistics
Storing, distributing and delivering finished goods to customers. For example, outsourcing delivering could give a cost advantage.
④Marketing and sales
For example, sponsorship of a sports celebrity could enhance the image of the product.
⑤Service
All activities that occur after the point of sale, such as installation, training and repair[size=10.5000pt]. e.g. Marks and Spencer’s friendly approach to returns gives it a perceived a quality advantage.
基本活动:
①进货后勤:接收、存储和处理原材料的输入。如,及时存货制度可以带来成本优势。
  ②生产经营:将原材料转化成最终产品和服务。如,使用有熟练的技工可以带来质量优势。
  ③发货后勤:存储,配送最终产品给客户。如,将送货业务外包可以带来成本优势。
  ④市场营销:如,赞助一个体育名人可以提高产品的形象。
⑤服务:在销售之后的所有业务,如,安装、维修、培训等。如,玛莎百货对退货的友好态度让人感觉到它的质量优势。
Secondary activities:
①Firm infrastructure
How the firm is organized.
②Technology development
How the firm uses technology. For example, the latest computer-controlled machinery gives greater flexibility to tailor products to individual customer specifications.
③Human resources development
How people contribute to competitive advantage. For example, employing expert buyers could enable a supermarket to purchase better wines than competitors[size=10.5000pt].
④Procurement
Purchasing, but not just limited to materials.
辅助活动:
①企业的基础设施建设:企业的组织状况。
②技术开发:企业如何使用技术。如,最新的计算机控制机器具有较大的灵活性,可以按照每个客户的规格要求生产产品。
③人力资源管理:人员对企业竞争优势的贡献。如,雇佣具有专业知识的采购者可以使一个超市买到比竞争对手更好的酒。
④采购:购买,但不限于材料。
To gain a competitive advantage over its rivals a company must either:
Perform value creation functions at a lower cost than its rivals or
Perform them in a way that leads to differentiation and a premium price.
企业为了获得优于竞争对手的竞争优势,只有两种选择:降低成本和实现差异化。
For example, a clothes manufacturer may spend large amounts on:
Buying good quality raw materials ( inbound logistics )
Hand-finishing garments (operations )
Building a successful brand image ( marketing and sales)
Running its own fleet of delivery trucks in order to deliver finished clothes quickly to customers (outbound logistics )
All of these should add value to the product, allowing the company to charge a premium for its clothes.
比如一家服装制造商,它可以将资金花费在:获得优质原材料(进货后勤);手工加工服装(生产经营);建立品牌形象(市场营销);加快送货速度(发货后勤)。
这些环节均可以帮助企业的服装制定较高价格,从而为企业创造价值。

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